Course In
Plant Propagation
3rd November 2012

Facilitator : The Kebun
Course Title: Course In Plant Propagation
Tutor(s) Name: Voon Boon Hoe
Start Date: 3rd November 2012
End Date: 5th November 2012
Time: 10am – 4.30pm
Venue: The Kebun
Cost: RM600.00 including home-made lunch, snacks etc.
Contact: Voon Boon Hoe, Adrian Cornelius
Location: Jalan Hidupan Liar, Kubah Matang, Kuching
Postcode: 93050
Phone: +6014 5775666

Course in Plant Propagation

Learn to propagate plants. Learn what technique works for what type of plant. Learn about the equipment and materials needed to propagate and produce new plants

This course is suitable for:

  • Home owners and hobby gardeners who want to learn more about plant propagation
  • Students of horticulture, as a foundation for further, specialised study in plant propagation
  • People working or planning to work in plant nurseries

There are 10 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction to Propagation
    • Asexual and sexual propagation
    • Aseptic Micropropagation, Runners, Suckers, Layering, Separation, Division, Grafting, Budding, Cuttings, Seed
    • Genotype versus Phenotype
    • Plant life cycles -phases of the sexual cycle; phases of the asexual cycle
    • Annual, Perennial, Biennial Life Cycles
    • Propagation Terminology
    • Nursery production systems
    • Operational Flow Chart for Seed Propagation
  2. Seed Propagation
    • Seed Sources
    • Maintaining Genetic Identity of Seed -Isolation, Rogueing, Testing, Hand Pollination
    • Hybrid Seed Production
    • Storing Seed
    • Types of Seed Storage
    • Seed Biology -Endospermic, Non Endospermic
    • Dormancy Factors Affecting Germination
    • Germination Treatments -boiling water, stratification
    • Terminology
    • Seed Raising Technique
  3. Potting Media
    • Characteristics of Potting and Propagating Media
    • Media derived from rock or stone
    • Media derived from synthetics
    • Organic Media
    • Soil Media
    • The UC System
    • Chemical Charagteristics -eg. pH, Cation Exchange Capacity, Salinity, Conductivity
    • Laboratory Testing of Media
    • Physical Characteristics
    • Potting Mixes
    • Propagating Media
    • Nutrition at the Propagation Stage
    • Nutrition Management and Fertiliser Application
  4. Vegetative Propagation I
    • Reasons to propagate by cuttings
    • Types -softwood, hardwood, semi hardwood, herbaceous
    • Stem Cuttings, Tip, heel, nodal, basal
    • Leaf and Leaf-bud cuttings
    • Cane cuttings
    • Root Cuttings
    • Bulb Cuttings
    • Hormone Treatments for Cutting Propagation
    • Other Cutting Treatments; basal wounding, anti-transpirants, fungacides, disinfectants, mycorrhyza, etc
    • Artificial Light for Propagation
    • Cutting Propasgation Efficiency
    • Rockwool Propagation
  5. Vegetative Propagation II
    • Care of stock plants
    • Layering
    • Division
    • Terminology
    • Managing Watering
  6. Vegetative Propagation III
    • Terminology
    • Budding and grafting
    • Reasons for Grafting
    • How a Graft forms
    • Grafting Techniques; Types of Grafts
    • What Plant to Graft on What
    • Grafting Materials
    • Root Grafting, Bench Grafting, Soft Tissue Grafting
    • Establishing Rootstocks
    • Tissue culture: Applications, Problems, Nutrient Media, Cleanliness, Growing Conditions
    • Tissue Culture Procedures and Techniques
    • Laboratory Requirements
    • Terminology
    • Biotech applications in Horticulture
  7. Propagation Structures and Materials
    • Growing in a Greenhouse
    • Growing Structures: Types of Greenhouses, Cold Frames, Shadehouses
    • Propagating equipment -Heaters, Bottom Heat, Misting, Light Control, Benches etc
    • Managing a Greenhouse
  8. Risk Management
    • Nursery hygiene
    • Risk assessment and management
    • Safety -tools, equipment handling, electricity, etc
    • Pest and Disease Management
    • Environmental Problems and management
  9. Nursery Management I
    • Plant modification techniques
    • Management policies
    • Keeping Propagation Records
    • Nursery Production Systems
  10. Nursery Management II
    • Nursery standards, cost efficiencies, site planning and development
      Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school’s tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.
    • Plan the propagation of different plant species from seeds, using different seed propagation methods.
    • Plan the propagation of different types of plants from cuttings, using different cutting propagation methods.
    • Plan the propagation of various types of plants using a range of propagation techniques, excluding cuttings and seed.
    • Determine the necessary facilities, including materials and equipment, required for propagation of different types of plants.
    • Determine a procedure to minimise plant losses during propagation.
    • Determine the management practices of significance to the commercial viability of a propagation nursery.
    • Design a propagation plan for the production of a plant.
    • Test soils to determine characteristics which would be valuable to management of any given soil in a horticultural situation
    • Identify sandy loam, silty loam, and clay loam soils by feel; and pH testing by soil indicator; and relate to plant selection
    • Identify and sow a range of different types of seeds, in different situations, in a way that will optimise successful propagation.
    • Propagate a range of plants using different vegetative propagation techniques
    • Pot up and provide after care for a range of propagated seedlings and cuttings.
    • Plant a range of (different types) plant material.
    • Maintain the desired growth type and habit for a range of plants.
    • Identify significant woody plants including: Trees; Shrubs; Groundcover; & Conifers
    • Identify a range of significant plant problems including pests, diseases and others.
    • Identify a range of non woody and indoor plants of horticultural significance.
    • Conduct a risk assessment of a horticultural workplace to determine safe working practices and select appropriate personal safety clothing and equipment.
    • You will visit and contact various sites involved in propagation (real or virtual), including relevant workplaces. Through these visits the student will develop an awareness of workplaces and practical applications of the subject.

Propagating Plants successfully is not always straight forward; but with knowledge, practice, and the right equipment, you can propagate any plants you want to.

Why Is Propagation Sometimes Unsuccessful?
There are many reasons; for example.

  • The environmental conditions may not be correct
  • Cuttings or seed can become infected by pests or diseases before they become strong enough.
  • You might not be using the best type of plant tissue to propagate from
  • Many types of seed will not grow if dormancy is not first broken


  1. Physical Dormancy
  2. Seed coats, and sometimes hardened sections of other parts of the seed, become impermeable to water. In nature these hard layers are softened by environmental effects such as freezing and thawing, mechanical abrasion and attack by micro-organisms. This condition is characteristic of many plant families including.

  3. Mechanical Dormancy
  4. Seed covering is too hard to allow embryo to expand when germinating (e.g. in a peach stone).

  5. Chemical Dormancy
  6. Chemicals in the seed inhibit germination. This is common with fleshy fruits and berries. Seeds of this type need to be removed from the fruit and washed before sowing.

  7. Morphological Dormancy
  8. The seed is not fully developed at the time the fruit ripens. It needs time before it can be sown. Common in the following families: Araliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Ericaceae, Primulaceae, Apiaceae.

  9. Internal Dormancy
  10. A number of types of dormancy; where germination is controlled by the internal condition of the seed. The most significant example is moist chilling, where the seed need to go through a period of cold before it will germinate. This is common in the Rosaceae family.


Mr. Voon Boon Hoe

Beekeeping Course
9th November 2012


Facilitator : The Kebun
Course Title: Beekeeping for Beginners
Tutor(s) Name: Ron Ah Goh
Start Date: 9th November 2012
End Date: 9th November 2012
Time: 10am – 4.30pm
Venue: The Kebun
Level: Beginner
Cost: RM199.00 including home-made lunch, snacks etc.
Contact: Ron Ah Goh, Adrian Cornelius
Location: Jalan Hidupan Liar, Kubah Matang, Kuching
Postcode: 93050
Phone: +6014 5775666
Other info: This course is an introduction to the subject of bee keeping, with the emphasis on the practical aspects of bee-keeping for beginners. We will have a look at some beehives but not the inhabitants on this occasion. Students will learn how to set up an apiary, what equipment to buy, the terminology, life cycle of the bee, how to identify the different members of the hive, the bee calendar, and diseases. Today is a theory-only day. the practical Hands on the Hive is another course, with only a few people each time.


Facilitator : The Kebun
Course Title: Beekeeping for Beginners
Tutor(s) Name: Ron Ah Goh
Start Date: 10th November 2012
End Date: 10th November 2012
Time: 10am – 4.30pm
Venue: The Kebun
Level: Intermediate
Cost: RM199.00 including home-made lunch, snacks etc.
Contact: Ron Ah Goh, Adrian Cornelius
Location: Jalan Hidupan Liar, Kubah Matang, Kuching
Postcode: 93050
Phone: +6014 5775666
Other info: The intermediary course could be looking into the management of the hives. This include how to identify the pests and how to manage them. Also the method to prevent absconding and swarming. Harvesting of honey and packaging.


Facilitator : The Kebun
Course Title: Advance Beekeeping Course
Tutor(s) Name: Ron Ah Goh
Start Date: 12th November 2012
End Date: 12th November 2012
Time: 10am – 4.30pm
Venue: The Kebun
Level: Advance
Cost: RM199.00 including home-made lunch, snacks etc.
Contact: Ron Ah Goh, Adrian Cornelius
Location: Jalan Hidupan Liar, Kubah Matang, Kuching
Postcode: 93050
Phone: +6014 5775666
Other info: Introduction to Queen Rearing – illustrated, Getting bees to make Queen cells – Brief introduction, Setting up cell raisers, Obtaining virgin queens Nuclei, Putting bees in swarm box in Apiary, Collect frames of brood in Apiary, Practical grafting, Place grafts into swarm box, Brief introduction on mininukes, Examination of mininukes in Apiary, Examination of grafting done on previous day., Reports on what students found, Summing up. A new and unusual opportunity for all beekeepers! Come and learn how to rear your own queen bees from the Sarawak’s leading international authority on bee’s Mr. Ron Ah Goh

Permaculture Course
19th November – 2nd December, 2012


Dates: November 19th- December 2nd, 2012
Location: The Kebun, Jalan Kubah Matang, Malaysian Borneo
Facilitators: Doug Crouch
Language used: English
Course Fee: 650 AUD or 950 AUD with additional tours

****includes accommodation and delicious food****

For more information and to register contact the following:

Adrian at +60148866633 or +60145775666 (International) or

THE COURSE: Format and Content

The course will be an 80-hour Permaculture Design Certificate Course spread out over 14 days. This allows for ample time for students to digest the material, get hands-on experience and work on the final design project and presentation. The course will be a certified through TreeYo Permaculture as we adhere to Bill Mollison’s curriculum that comprises the 14 chapters of his book “Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual”. Our schedule reflects this commitment and has a strong emphasis on how the design principles and process influence site development and systems management. We will cover the following topics throughout the course:

  • Ethics, Principles, and Methods of Permaculture Design
  • Pattern Understanding: Interpretation and Application
  • Climatic Factors: Broad Climatic Zones and Microclimate – Effects on Landscape and Design
  • Water: Harvesting, Conservation, Purification, and Revitalization
  • Trees and their Energy Transactions: SoilWaterTrees
  • Soils: Classification, Food Web, and Restoration
  • Aquaculture: Food Web, Aquatic Plants, Chinampas, Tyre Ponds, Water Quality Parameters
  • Animal Systems: Integrate worms, chickens, goats, and many other animals in your design
  • Strategies for Tropical, Dry-land, and Temperate Climates: Influences on Vegetation, Housing, and Earthworks
  • Introduction to Natural Building: Earth as a Building Material
  • Fermentation and Nutrition: Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Sourdough Bread and Pickles
  • Local Food Systems: CSA-Community Supported Agriculture, Cooperatives, Food-Coops
  • Social and Economic Permaculture: Bio-Regional Organisation, Living in Communities, Transition Towns and Local Resiliency
  • And last but not least: Lot´s of laughs, fun and happy faces, group activities and lot’s of work! A Transformation of Your Life is guaranteed!


The course will end with the required student design projects that will utilize the landscape at The Kebun, which is where participants will be staying. By using an actual physical site for the design projects, students will gain the experience of completing a full design from walking the land during the initial assessment to mapping and measuring to client interviews and final presentations.

The design project process increases learner retention by allowing for immediate application and direct practice of learned skills while offering a means to evaluates students’ comprehension of the theory and lecture sections of the course. All of which are necessary to become successful, effective, and certified Permaculture designers.

The final design project is also considered direct hands-on experience as students will be engaged in a process that will yield a viable design proposal. Our commitment to practicing the design principles and process throughout the course itself reinforces the theory and lecture sessions. To bring the material alive we facilitate the course so that numerous learning styles are supported. One of our teaching techniques is through design exercises that compliment the lecture material and add an element of fun to the atmosphere.

For more information about our past courses visit the following page: Previous TreeYo Courses. Be sure to take special note of the past courses in Malaysia and Singapore.


Another integral part of the course is the hands-on segment because it integrates the techniques directly to your body. Proposed hands-on segments for the course are:

  • Hot Compost Pile Making and turning throughout the course to address
  • Small-scale Earthworks to address rainwater runoff issues and feed associated plantings
  • Banana Circle installation as a great small-scale intensive system to help address the systemic problem of burning organic matter in the tropics
  • Plant Propagation as a way to learn different techniques to quickly fill up a site with useful plants at a low-cost
  • Food Fermentation as a way to connect food production with culture with health and season extension
  • Final Design Project for immediate application and direct practice of learned skills


Doug Crouch: Having taught the first PDC ever in Malaysia in 2009, TreeYo Permaculture facilitator Doug Crouch will be returning in late 2012. He will team with the land steward Adrian from The Kebun project to facilitate the 72 hour internationally recognized PDC. Doug’s formal background is in ecology and has been practicing and teaching Permaculture for over seven years in different parts of the world. He has recently received his Diploma in Permaculture Education. Although it will be a new host site, which is a common theme for TreeYo, the same natural unfolding of the course and its content will occur through our TreeYo facilitation style and process. To view some of the presentations you can expect during the course via PowerPoint, please visit Doug’s slideshare account at the following:

Adrian Cornelius, our host, the farm manager and land steward, will be sharing with us his integrated knowledge of the working farm as well as medicinal plants. His trial and error process over the years on this land will be a valuable insight into tropical agriculture and site development.

Guest Speakers: In every course we like to invite specialists in their area to teach topics related to Permaculture. Past students who want to become Permaculture teachers are also invited to present. Our guest speakers for this course are yet to be confirmed.

The Food:

The Kebun has already a reputation for serving some of the best food! Either rice or noodles will be the main dish but there will be so many different dishes that will go with it ranging from steamed fish to mild curries to freshly made vegetable salads depending on what is available from the garden.
Breakfast will be more continental serving farm fresh-baked bread, eggs, but expect a local breakfast alternative too with local dishes every few days.


The Kebun is situated west of Kuching City, the capital of Sarawak, long famous for it’s White Rajah. Nestled at the foot of the Serapi Mountain range it was craved out of jungle into what it is today, a thriving, working organic farm. The property boasts a huge range tropical fruit trees including both traditional and common herbs native to the tropic’s. The property also includes many domestic animals from Goats, Chickens, Ducks, Turkeys to Guinea Fowl. There is also two established fish ponds that have enough breeding stock to supplement our needs. Permaculture is a big part of the farms operation as it works towards establishing itself as the premier demonstration site for South East Asia.

Because the site has had several years of organic farm management with Permaculture type thinking, it is easy for students to simply walk out the door and see the principles of design in action. We will be evaluating the farm in the course for ways to push the permaculture envelope, contribute to its success through our hands-on practicals, and leave behind designs through the final design project. All of this will help increase its mission of spreading sustainable agriculture and preservation of ecological systems in Borneo that face many degradation pressures.


The Kebun, working organic farm and eco-tourism destination, is situated near Kuching making travel to and from the site quite easy. Also Kuching is described as a hidden jewel of a Malaysian city and boasts some nice cultural heritage. Malaysia has a unique blend of ethnicities and is quite a dynamic balance. Also Kuching serves for many as the jumping off point to the many National Parks on Borneo which display its bountiful bio-diversity really well. Also there are beaches to access to enjoy some seaside time.

This course offers the unique opportunity to combine a PDC with eco-tourism through our extended course package. This would allow you to take guided tours of the national parks and cultural villages to really be able to do and see a lot in Borneo in a short amount of time. The following trips can be incorporated into a longer stay at the Kebun for an extra cost of 300 AUD and can be read in full detail here.

Bako National Park + Muara Tebas Chinese Temple (Overnight)
Sarawak Cultural Village + Kuching Wetlands Cruise
Satang Turtle Island


Another powerful tool to accumulate design understanding is going on field trips to other sites and learning first-hand the solutions that other people have created in developing Permaculture sites and green micro-enterprises. We will use this opportunity to evaluate another farm and use it as a context to see how Permaculture Design consultation occurs. It will offer you a context for how Permaculture design and management can quickly improve a farms standing especially in the tropics.

Many Reasons to Come Join Us!

The Kebun project and TreeYo PDC offer a great location and context for learning Permaculture!

  • Come and be part of a working farm and herb sanctuary that is dedicated to giving locals good food to eat and a great model for how to move forward with regenerative agriculture in the tropics!
  • The site is extremely accessible to the Kuching City as well as amazing beaches, national parks, and places to visit!
  • The working farm will feed us with local and organic deliciousness!!!
  • The Confidence to be a Permaculture consultant and practitioner in the future is one of the most valuable qualities that students will develop during the course due to the numerous site applications, international staff, creative solution successes, and varied micro-climates. The world needs YOU!

So please come join us in tropical Borneo for what is going to be a great community experience, an adventure and an awakening to the natural world around us that is ripe with possibilities for connection and interaction.

After all, it will be a fun learning experience sure to give a new perspective on everyday surroundings and bring inspired solutions to the table. Let Permaculture be the systematic approach to make change in the world and your local community alike. Learn to turn Problems into Solutions, to Work with Nature not Against, and how Everything…yes every THING…gardens!!!!!

Past Course Recaps from Asia: